Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast

Current equipage level

April 202186.0%86.8%May 2021

This number shows the percentage of aircraft that are subject to the SPI IR mandate, are registered in EU27+4 and were detected transmitting ADS-B Version 2 in the given month. State aircraft are not included.

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Update of CS-STAN on consultation until 18 June 2021

The EASA Certification Specification CS-STAN, which caters to General Aviation, is undergoing its regular...

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23 Apr, 2021

Surveillance service using ADS-B expanding

From 17th February 2021 the Icelandic ANSP Isavia, an established pioneer in the operational...

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22 Feb, 2021

Common Project 1 – a new European regulation ensuring the continuation of sustainable ATM modernisation and digitalization through SESAR deployment

European Commission Implementing Regulation no. 116/2021, Common Project 1 (CP1), amending Commission Implementing Regulation...

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02 Feb, 2021

ED-102B/DO-260C APPROVED FOR PUBLICATION

ED-102B/DO-260C was approved for publication by EUROCAE and RTCA. The document contains Minimum Operational...

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18 Dec, 2020

ICAO preparing a joint position to ITU WRC-23

Radio Frequency (RF) interference and spectrum congestion of L-band, potentially affecting the 1090MHz Automatic...

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09 Dec, 2020

Operational implementation of ASEPS using ADS-B in the NAT Region

On 28 March 2019, an operational trial of Advanced Surveillance-Enhanced Procedural Separation (ASEPS) using...

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08 Dec, 2020

SPI IR: reminder to all concerned air operators of their stipulated obligations

December 7th 2020 marks the passing of the first deadline for the implementation of...

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07 Dec, 2020

ED-102B/DO-260C clears another milestone

On September 15th, 2020, draft ED-102B/DO-260C was approved for submission to the EUROCAE Council...

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16 Sep, 2020

EASA AMC & GM TO THE SPI IR REGULATION AVAILABLE NOW

On 18 August 2020, the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) released the Acceptable...

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20 Aug, 2020

New podcast episode: SPI IR amendment

SESAR Deployment Manager ADS-B team released a new episode of the regular ADS-B Podcast....

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16 Jul, 2020

Transitional regime for ADS-B airborne stakeholders approved and implementation deadline postponed by 6 months due to COVID-19

30 April 2020 – Today the European Commission published in the Official Journal of the...

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30 Apr, 2020

EASA Committee approves SPI IR Amendment

22 April 2020 – On behalf of the European Commission, SESAR Deployment Manager is...

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22 Apr, 2020

Latest podcast episode with ISAVIA out now

27 March 2020 – What kind of benefits can ISAVIA identify in ADS-B implementation?What...

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27 Mar, 2020

ED-102B /Do-260C out on public consultation

24 March 2020 – EUROCAE and RTCA have been working jointly in the development...

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24 Mar, 2020

Our third podcast episode is here!

“The military does understand the need to further develop and rationalise the CNS in...

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10 Mar, 2020

Space based ADS-B enabling operations in the NAT region

13 Feb 2020 – As of AIRAC 02/2020, effective from 30 January 2020, a...

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13 Feb, 2020

“Europe for Aviation” teaming up to tackle sustainability, capacity and innovation at the 2020 World ATM Congress

30 Jan 2020 – The “Europe for Aviation” team, made up of eight European...

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30 Jan, 2020

Increasing number of ANSPs roll out ADS-B

ADS-B already in use on multiples sites in Spain 29 Jan 2020 – In...

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29 Jan, 2020

ADS-B Podcast: CANSO supports European ADS-B implementation

Our newest podcast episode is out to take a closer look at European ADS-B...

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23 Jan, 2020

NPRM published by the FAA about Remote ID of Small UAS

On December 20, 2019, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) released the Notice of Proposed...

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09 Jan, 2020

ADS-B Implementation Plan 2019 Delivered to the European Commission

On 20 December 2019, the ADS-B Implementation Plan edition 2019 was delivered to the...

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20 Dec, 2019

SPI IR Amendment proposal out on consultation, deadline 10 February 2020

On 13 December, the European Commission launched the public consultation of the long anticipated...

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16 Dec, 2019

First episode of the ADS-B Podcast now available!

Interested in European ADS-B implementation? SESAR Deployment Manager now brings you closer to the...

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16 Dec, 2019

FAA Successfully Completes Final ADS-B Milestone

WASHINGTON – The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) completed its final implementation milestone with Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B),...

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16 Oct, 2019

Air operators committed to sharing EU ADS-B implementation plans

According to the latest planning data aggregated by SESAR Deployment Manager (SDM), airspace users...

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12 Jul, 2019

EU ADS-B airborne equipage trend accelerating

Airborne equipage has doubled since October 2018 in the European Union. This trend is...

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12 Jul, 2019

ADS-B and SESAR Deployment Manager role

SESAR Deployment Manager, supported by Eurocontrol on ADS-B, is contributing to a more efficient, safe and sustainable air transport system across Europe

In recent years ADS-B emerged as a cost effective surveillance technology with great potential towards innovative applications.

ADS-B involves the aircraft using a certified position source to determine own position and broadcasting it in short intervals by means of a data link in radio frequency spectrum. This functionality is usually referred to as ADS-B Out.

Conversely, an aircraft can be fitted with an ADS-B receiver – processor to display the detected ADS-B transmissions from other aircraft to the pilot. This is then referred to as ADS-B In.

With ADS-B, realtime visiblity is provided to air traffic control and to other equipped ADS-B aircraft with position and velocity data transmitted periodically. ADS-B also provides the data infrastructure for inexpensive flight tracking, planning, and dispatch.

In high complexity environments such as the EU airspace, ADS-B is envisaged to operate in conjunction with existing independent cooperative chains, greatly enhancing accuracy, data availability and reducing frequency load.

ADS-B Implementation in Europe

Introduction

To pave the way for the transformation of the European surveillance infrastructure towards the less costly and more spectrum efficient ADS-B technology, the European Commission requires aircraft operators to equip their aircraft with respective surveillance functions. The mandate is known as the SPI IR, for Surveillance Performance and Interoperability Implementing Rule and the legal reference is CIR (EU) No 1207/2011. Following the most recent amendment CIR (EU) 2020/587, the general outline of the mandate is as follows:

  • The rule is an airspace usage mandate; it is applicable to IFR/GAT operations of at least 5.7 tons MTOW or 250 KTAS max cruising speed, within SES airspace and irrespective of state of registry of the aircraft
  • Equip in accordance with EASA CS-ACNS with a transponder in accordance with EUROCAE ED-102A (equates with RTCA DO-260B)
    Third-country-operator (TCO) aircraft that operate within the Single European Sky (SES) airspace should comply with national requirements equivalent to the requirements of CS-ACNS, Subpart D, Sections 2, 3, and 4, as applicable
  • Forward fits to comply by 7 December 2020
  • Retrofits conditionally deferrable to 7 June 2023
  • Exemptions available to old aircraft (CoA before 7 June 1995), aircraft operating maintenance or export flights and aircraft that will cease operations in Airspace by 31 October 2025.

For a detailed breakdown of the rule, see the dedicated section on CIR (EU) 2020/587

In 2018, the European Commission tasked SESAR Deployment Manager with the planning and execution of a coordinated and synchronized aircraft and ground implementation of ADS-B. In response to this request SESAR Deployment Manager produced ADS-B Implementation Plan, the first edition of which was delivered and published in December 2018. SESAR Deployment Manager continues to update the plan on a yearly basis.

 

SESAR Deployment Manager partnered with EUROCONTROL on this task. EUROCONTROL supports this activity by operational and technical coordination, performance monitoring of ADS-B as well as by contributing to the preparation of the activity deliverables.

Airborne Implementation

Evolution of airborne equipage

In this diagram, we show the continued evolution of the equipage, categorized in the three populations as effectively created by the most recent amendment of the mandate. The diagram is updated monthly and is based on airline planning data covering 60% of the EU-based, mandated fleet, responsible for at least 85 % of monthly IFR movements. The evolution of the actual equipage (solid green curve) is monitored by EUROCONTROL.

Note: 

  • CIR (EU) 2020/587 creates an indefinite exemption for airframes with first individual CoA dated before 7 June 1995. This fleet is excluded from the diagram from data point 07-Dec-2020.
  • Following the publication of CIR (EU) 2020/587, SDM re-surveyed a portion of airspace users for their updated implementation plans. Due to a lack of near-term planning stability, brought on by the COVID crisis in the aviation industry, the diagram respects the results of the survey as of data point 01-Jan-2022.
  • SPI IR also includes a mandate on Mode S surveillance; Mode S ELS must be fitted from 7 Dec 2020, whereas Mode S EHS regime is similar to the ADS-B regime depicted in the diagram.

Monthly evolution of equipage by location, heatmap

The figure above shows the ratio of ADS-B version 2 flights per month and per geographical area. By moving the slider the evolution of the equipage ratio can be observed from January 2018 up to today.

Ground Implementation

Available ground based ADS-B coverage

The following maps show the present extent of ground-based ADS-B coverage generated by installed systems, estimated at 5000ft AGL and FL300. The coverage was modelled on top of the EU Copernicus Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and actualized to December 2020.

The coverages shown are generated by ADS-B capable systems in operational use (dark green), in evaluation (light green) or coverage available but not (yet) operationally used (yellow). This comprises standalone ADS-B Ground stations as well as other systems with ADS-B capabilities, including Wide Area Multilateration (WAM) systems, airport multilateration systems and Mode S radars.

ADS-B coverage available 2020, 5000ft AGL


ADS-B coverage available 2020, FL300

Below, the known existing ADS-B coverage (light grey) is complemented with overlaid (light purple) coverage that is planned to be deployed before end 2023.

Note that the view is not exhaustive, there are additional known deployment activities where siting decisions are yet to be made.

ADS-B coverage planned 2023, 5000ft AGL

ADS-B coverage planned 2023, FL300

Operational use in ATC by Air Navigation Service Providers

In parallel to the deployment of ADS-B capable sensors to achieve the intended coverage, the other main step for ANSPs is to integrate ADS-B data in the surveillance chain.

If the integration is properly synchronized across domains and supported by a competent programme to catalyze ground investment plans, a large majority of European ANSPs indicated in 2019 that they could start providing separation using ADS-B in the continental airspace by end of 2023, assuming that 95% of EU commercial fleet will be ADS-B equipped and that outstanding technical and/or regulatory issues in the space, airborne and ground domains are satisfactorily addressed.

CIR (EU) 2020/587

The 2018 edition of the ADS-B Implementation Plan established that the target date of the SPI IR, 7th June 2020, was not likely to be achieved by a non-negligible portion of the affected EU-based Airspace Users. Continuous monitoring of the implementation effort currently predicts the achievable compliance rate of the mandated fleet as approaching 80%. In order to provide an appropriate measure of legal accommodation of the residual fleet, the European Commission published COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2020/587.

The regulation amends the existing SPI IR 1207/2011 and 1206/2011. Concerning the airborne implementation, it provides, beside the general shift of the compliance date, conditional transitional arrangements and exemptions.

Beside the transitional arrangements and the exemption scheme depicted in the figure above, the CIR 2020/587 revised other parts of the implementing rule.

Airborne implementation

Some of the changes relevant to the airborne implementation are as follows:

a) Flight plans

Operators of non-equipped State aircraft communicated as per Article 8(3) and operators of aircraft not equipped in accordance with Article 5(5) operating within the Single European Sky airspace, shall include the indicators SUR/EUADSBX or SUR/EUEHSX or SUR/EUELSX or a combination thereof, in Item 18 of the flight plan.

b) Scheduled Maintenance

The paragraph on the check of the transponder system at least every two years was removed.
Note: Manufacturer Maintenance Planning Documents and/or local requirements apply.

c) Defective Transponder System

For aircraft where the capability of the transponders to comply with the requirements on ADS-B and EHS is temporarily inoperative, operators shall be entitled to operate that aircraft in the Single European Sky airspace for a maximum of 3 consecutive days.

d) Certification Requirements

The installation requirements per Annex 10 to the Chicago Convention, Volume IV, Fourth Edition have to include all amendments up to No. 77, (previously No. 85)
Note: This pertains to Mode-S legacy equipment predating ADS-B V2.

e) Mode S EHS exemption

The EHS exemption for aircraft where required parameters are not available on a digital bus on-board has been clarified.

Ground implementation

Some of the changes relevant to the ground implementation are as follows:

a) 24-Bit Address assignment standard

The standard for the assignment of 24-Bit ICAO aircraft addresses per Chapter 9 of Annex 10 to the Chicago Convention has to include all amendments up to No 90 instead of No 85

b) Data sharing

The definition of formal arrangements between air navigation service providers for the exchange or provision of surveillance data has been facilitated

c) Avionics monitoring

The requirement for Air Navigation Service Provider to inform operators of identified aircraft whose avionics exhibit a functional anomaly, has been deleted
Note: The scope of avionics monitoring remains covered by provisions in other regulations.

EASA released AMC/GM to the SPI IR regulation giving further information, definitions and recommendations on several articles and paragraphs as shown in the figure below, ordered by the addressed stakeholder groups.

ADS-B Worldwide

Global Mandate Map

There are numerous ADS-B mandates anticipated or already in place in many parts of the world. The map below shows in green the regions requiring at least ADS-B version 0, in blue the ones requiring ADS-B version 2, together with the anticipated date of entry-into-force, and in grey where regulatory activity is ongoing and mandates are expected in the near future. The map is maintained and updated as new information becomes available.

Space-based ADS-B

Space-based ADS-B is a relatively recent technology that utilizes a network of satellites to provide ADS-B coverage “from above”. The constellation listens to ADS-B messages broadcast from aircraft and forwards them to subscribers using a low latency link.

Aireon is the world’s first provider of this service and operates a space-based air traffic surveillance system for ADS-B equipped aircraft throughout the entire globe. Aireon harnesses next-generation aviation surveillance technologies that were previously only ground-based and, for the first time ever, extend their reach globally to significantly improve efficiency, enhance safety, reduce emissions and provide cost savings benefits to all stakeholders. Real-time ADS-B surveillance covers oceanic, polar and remote regions, as well as augment existing ground-based systems that are limited to terrestrial airspace. The Aireon system is hosted on Iridium’s network of 66 LEO satellites providing complete global coverage.

The performance of the space-based ADS-B surveillance by Aireon allows a drastic reduction in ICAO Doc 4444 PANS ATM longitudinal and lateral separation minima in the oceanic airspace for aircraft equipped with ADS-B Out. The corresponding amendment of ICAO Doc 4444 PANS ATM is currently pending publication, anticipated 5th November 2020. To apply these new separation standards, a number of prescribed conditions must be met, including specific RNP and RCP requirements. The new standards reduce the applicable minima to 19 NM / 17 NM longitudinal and can be further reduced to 15/14 NM in specific traffic conditions. NAV CANADA and NATS have been applying these new separation standards in the NAT Region since 2019, with other ICAO NAT ANSPs expected to follow suit.

On some North Atlantic Tango Routes, Space-based ADS-B has already been introduced as the main surveillance technology providing automatic position reporting. As such, the newly introduced NAT ADS-C requirement will not apply to ADS-B capable users on those specific routes. For more information, see the respective section of the UK AIP (link).

Space-based ADS-B will also enable continental coverage and ANSPs will be able to procure this product as a surveillance service.

The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) certified Aireon as a new air navigation service provider (ANSP) in May 2019, a first of its kind safety certification. Under the certification, Aireon is authorized as the first-ever certified provider of aircraft surveillance-as-a-service for oceanic separation of aircraft.

Shortly after the certification from EASA, Aireon and EUROCONTROL signed an agreement to use space-based ADS-B data to enhance air traffic flow management in Europe.

FAQs

Airborne Domain

Are there any Ground ADS-B use cases in the near future?

Air Navigation Service Providers reported that there are implementations of ADS-B sensors ongoing to complement redundant surveillance layers, and some limited operational use is already occurring. A high airborne equipage rate will be needed to allow for an ADS-B driven progressive rationalization of the highly redundant Secondary Surveillance Radar network in the European continental airspace.

A number of large European ANSPs announced major surveillance infrastructure renewal programs commencing 2020, which will present an opportunity to progress with ADS-B deployment.

Why do I have to upgrade from ADS-B Version 0 and Version 1 to Version 2?

ADS-B Version 2 provides the performance required to safely provide ATC service in the dense and complex European continental airspace.

Version 2 ADS-B conveys improved data accuracy, latency and integrity, borne among others from the requirement to directly wire the Global Navigation Sensor System to the ADS-B Transponder unit.

What is the difference between the EU and the US mandate?

The two mandates are very similar, however there are a few differences. One difference relates to that the US mandate has additional requirements on the Position data quality requiring Satellite Based Augmentation Systems or operational procedures linked to the position source used, where some are subject to a temporary exemption until 31 December 2024.

Refer to the FAA website for the detailed exemption policy

A well rounded description of the FAA mandate is available here.

Ground Domain

Is ADS-B intended as a replacement of the Secondary Surveillance Radar?

At system component level it is expected to happen in an increasing measure; this decision is for each ANSP to make, taking into account the specifics of own operational environment. As a technology, in continental Europe ADS-B is expected to complement, rather than replace, the independent cooperative layer, consisting of Mode S and multilateration systems and to a diminishing part, the legacy Mode A/C radars. The respective EUROCAE Standard for this application is the ED-161 and the deployment is already in progress in Europe.

Work is ongoing in further standardization of integrating ADS-B with independent cooperative sensors.

Surveillance based on Secondary radar and Multilateration gives us full coverage of the traffic in our Area of Responsibility. When can we expect comparable equipage from ADS-B?

Based on the surveys, SDM anticipates the mandated fleet to reach the vicinity of 75% in mid-2020, 93% in 2023 and approach 100% in 2025; within a margin that is yet to be determined by future provisions, including the accommodation of a relatively small number of aircraft planned for phase-out before 2025, as well as by the stakeholders’ commitment to implementation. Learning from the experience with the implementation of the US mandate and from recent work carried out by SDM, the two most effective components in promoting compliance are timely clarity on anticipated regulatory action and continued support of the stakeholders in the form of frequent provision of up-to-date information to increase awareness as well as technical and operational coordination. Assuming both are put into effect in Europe, SDM believes that such percentages are reachable objectives.

As to what concerns General Aviation and other types of operations which reside outside of the scope of SPI IR, this domain is currently under the responsibility of EASA; queries and concerns regarding these types of operations should be addressed directly to EASA.

Can we expect improvements in ADS-B performance?

Yes; the mandated ADS-B Version 2 eliminates a large proportion of known causes of abnormal behavior observed in the previous versions. As usual, it will the responsibility of each individual ANSP to independently verify ADS-B performance before committing to a provision of ADS-B enabled ATC service.

Team

Jan Stibor

ADS-B Programme Manager

Thomas Koerber

Workpackage Leader – Airborne Domain

Eric Vallauri

Workpackage Leader – Ground Domain

Katia Orteca

Consultant

Glossary

ADS-B Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast
ADS-B Version 0 EUROCAE ED-102 / RTCA D260
ADS-B Version 1 RTCA DO-260A
ADS-B Version 2 EUROCAE ED-102A / RTCA DO-260B
ANSP Air Navigation Service Provider
ATM Air Traffic Management
CEF Connecting Europe Facility, an EU infrastructure funding instrument under administration by INEA
Cooperative vs non-cooperative surveillance Refers to whether the surveillance system includes any onboard components required to function.
EASA European Union Aviation Safety Agency
FAA Federal Aviation Administration
GAT General Air Traffic, ICAO definition
ICAO NAT North Atlantic region
Independent cooperative surveillance A surveillance method that requires both onboard and off-board (terrestrial or satellite based) components to function and where the surveillance position is determined by the surveillance system itself.
Independent vs dependent surveillance Refers to whether the surveillance position is determined by the surveillance system itself (independent) or reported by the aircraft (dependent).
INEA Innovation and Networks Executive Agency
IFR Instrument Flight Rules
OAT Operational Air Traffic, ICAO definition
SPI IR Surveillance Performance and Interoperability Implementing Regulation
STC Supplemental Type Certificate
WAM Wide Area Multilateration

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